As opposed to cryptography, which uses encryption to keep the data covert. Steganography can be known as the practice of hiding communications in plain sight. It focuses on keeping the channel of communications and the data sent covert.
Firstly what is required is a cover medium. Many tools on the market now offer the functionality of using many media types such as video and sound, advancing from popular image only based methods. This cover medium is what is to be used to hide the intended secret data.
The data is embedded into the cover file using a steganographic algorithm. Embedding can be achieved by using steganography software readily available online. There are over 200 popular tools and 1000 predicated to exist.
By applying the steganographic algorithm such as Least Significant Bit or F5 to the data. It is embedded into the file. This then creates the carrier file. It is intended that this carrier file would be imperceptible and have the facility for high capacity. Thus providing the functionality of having a file which could carry adequate amount of data of which is not detectable.
Once the carrier file has reached its intended recipitant, the data is then extracted from the carrier file by the use of the same steganographic algorithm which was used to embed. The file can be password protected and also encrypted to add an extra layer of security.